Critical Systems Heuristics (CSH) to Deal with Stakeholders' Contradictory Viewpoints of Iran Performance Based Budgeting System

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Assistant Prof., Department of Industrial Management, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran

2 MA. Student, Department of Industrial Management, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran


Objective: Performance based budgeting is an undeniable necessity for effective management of the country vital resources nowadays, which benefits all economic and social layers of the society if properly implemented. Accordingly, this has encouraged lots of studies and researches on PPB theories, concepts and models. This study deeply reviewed Iran’s PBB system within four basic issues, including motivation, knowledge, legitimacy and power through critical approach.
Methods: Exploration in this system has been made using a critical (Emancipatory) approach called Critical Systems Heuristics. The process consists of reflecting the hidden views of the stakeholders using 12 boundary questions in two states of “being” which refers to the present situation and “ought to” which refers to an ideal situation.
Results: Findings of the implementation of methodology showed that there are many technical, human and social problems involved in evaluating and implementing a performance-based budgeting system. The main criticisms of the system are targeting, focusing on the short-term political visions, ignoring the new critical expertise, and ignoring the transparency of the system.
Conclusion: Research findings provided some fruitful comments on Iran’s PBB system and its vital required changes and modifications according to stakeholders’ boundary judgments (primary judgments about and a holistic approach to the system).


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